Discuss how the entry of Japan into WW 2 affected Australian Government decisions and the experiences of the population.
Here are 3 suggested scaffolds.
Paragraphs in the body of the essay can be expanded into sub points/additional paragraphs. Use the sources linked to the wiki for appropriate quotes – especially things spoken by PM or Ministry for Defence, or on posters and in news reports.

Scaffold 1 - an overview

Government decisions - new defence priorities =

'The Battle for Australia'

Evidence: -2 battalions redeployed to our region -

-defending Port Moresby: the Kokoda campaign

- new alliance with USA [not Britain]

- "Emergency powers"

- censorship and propaganda

Changes for citizens = lives much more controlled
- rationing

- defence measures

- "All in"- ways to volunteer

- new roles for women

Scaffold 2

Introduction - the entry of Japan into the war had a major impact on Australia - fear of invasion - PM Curtin declared the "Battle for Australia" = major changes to Government policies and priorities, the lives of all citizens affected.

1. Japan's attacks on Pearl Harbor, Singapore and Darwin cause Australia to feel vulnerable to attack - both British and American navies in the region destroyed - Darwin itself bombed over 50 times - plus other attacks along the coast

2. New alliances - P M Curtin looks to the USA - its troops and Navy come to the defense of our region - Britain unwilling/unable to offer support

3. new priorities for defense of our shores and our region -2nd AIF had been sent to Mediterranean, now recalled; the militia is boosted- conscripted soldiers - sent urgently to defend Port Moresby and the Kokoda Track - joined 4-5 weeks later by recalled AIF troops

4. mobilization of the Home front - in response to ongoing attacks by Japan - Government has emergency powers to control daily life of civilians. Encouraged to volunteer for defense jobs. Austerity and rationing. "All in".

Conclusion - years 1942 -45 Australia's focus was the defence of the Home Front and the region from Japan's advances, looking to the USA, and mobilizing the civilian population.

Scaffold 3 - advanced

Introduction: War declared, 2nd AIF sent to aid Britain in defence against Germany and the Axis powers, in Mediterranean, Nth Africa, Middle East. The attacks Dec 41 – Feb 42 left Australia vulnerable – believed Japan might invade. Defence of our shores become the #1 priority – resulting in immediate changes to defence policy, everyday life and lasting changes to foreign affairs.

1.NEW ALLIANCES PM Curtin’s Labour Government steps back from complete allegiance to Great Britain - looks to the US as the major ally in the region [Dec 41] – Quote? = “the Battle for Australia”. Troops recalled from Mediterranean; Churchill’s decisions overridden – needed for defence especially in New Guinea.US troops use Australia as base in the Pacific.

2. NEW DEFENCE PRIORITIES Need for immediate troops at home - conscription [begun in 1939] expanded and soldiers in the newly formed Militia [AMF] trained and sent to Port Moresby and the Kokoda Track. [Optional extra – RAN combines with US Navy to regain control of the Pacific and defend the Coral Sea]

3. FEAR OF INVASION – MOBILIZATION OF THE HOME FRONT Further attacks on our shores over next 18 months – raised fears of invasion - the whole civilian population is mobilized to boost defences on the Home Front. Many volunteer services for men and women. Emergency powers meant increased Government controls over life and restricted freedoms. Censorship and propaganda.

Optional – new roles for women.

Conclusion – the threat of Japanese attack and expansion in the Pacific had a huge immediate impact on life in Australia, decisions about defence priorities, and made lasting changes to our foreign policy.